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 APA Citation Manual
    Sixth Edition













 Citation Help


 Credit should always be given for anyone else’s ideas or words used.


A bibliography is an alphabetized list of information sources.  It contains all of the works that you actually use in your paper or presentation, as well as a list of other books or sources you read but didn't directly use in your project.

A works cited list is the part of a formal research paper that lists, in bibliographic format, only the sources actually cited within the body of the report.

An annotated bibliography contains an evaluative description of the information source after each citation.


















Author's Last name, Initials.  (Year of publication).  Title of work.  Place of Publication:  Publisher.


One Author

Tapscott, D. (1998).  Growing up digital.  New York:  McGraw-Hill.

Two Authors

Hamer, D., & Copeland, P. (2004).  Living with our genes:  Why they matter more than you think.

     New York:  Doubleday.

Multiple Authors up to Six Authors

Gaines, A. N., Cusher, S., Williams-Gaffen, M. J., & Cooper, M. (2006). Compound interest: Make your money work for you.

            Chicago: Peterson.

Edited Book No Authors

Martinez, J. R., & Rosenthal, D. (Eds.). (2003). Agriculture in modern society.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Book with Author and Editor

Ashaye, C.M. (2005). Substance abuse: What you should know (D. S. O'Reilly, Ed.). New York: Penguin.

Unknown Author

Oxford essential world atlas. (1996). New York: Oxford University Press.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Fesmire, S.  (2004). The social basis of character:  An ecological humanist approach. In H. LaFollette (Ed.),  Ethics in practice

             (pp. 282-292).   Cambridge, MA:  Blackwell Press.

Multi-volume Work

Golden, R. (Ed.). (1999).  The Social dimension of western civilization  (Vols. 1-2).   Boston:


Online Books From a Database

Author's Last name, first name.  (Original year of publication).   

     Original Book Title.   Retrieved from database URL.


Day, T. (2010).  Exploring the ocean. Retrieved  from

Rosen, K.S. (2008). Brazil. In Ed. J. Kinsbruner & E. Langer (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Latin American history 

         and culture (pp. 56-59) Retrieved from 











Online Encyclopedia or Reference Source

Author.  (Date). Title of chapter or entry. In Editor's Name.  Original Book Title. (edition) Retrieved from database URL.


Arsenault, T. (2009).  Civil Rights Movement. In Paul Boyer (Ed.) The Oxford Companion to U.S. History.

            Retrieved from  

Print Encyclopedia or a Multi-volume Reference Set

Bergmann, P.G. (1993). Relativity. The New Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).

     Chicago:  Encyclopedia Britannica.







Magazine Articles

Magazine Article from a Database such as SIRS, ELibrary, EBSCO, etc.

Author, Last Name, First Name Initial.  (Date of Document).  Title of article.

     Title of Magazine, vol. and page #s.   Retrieved from database URL.


Viadero, D. (2005, January 12). Uniform Effects.  Education Week, 24, 27-29.  Retrieved


Print Magazine Article

Author, Last Name, First Name Initial. (Date of Magazine).  Title of article.  Title of periodical, volume # page #s.











Thomas, E. & Hosenball, M. (2004, May 31). Bush's Mr. Wrong:

     The Rise and Fall of Chalabi.  Newsweek, 143, 22–32.








Newspaper Articles

Newspaper Article from an Online Database

Author, Last Name, First Name.  (Original Date).  Title of Article.

    Title of Newspaper, page(s). Section #.  Retrieved from database URL.


Grady, D., Jackson, R. W., (2004, September 30). The Secret Life of a Potent Cell.  The New York Times, p F1.  Retrieved
     February 9, 2005, from


Print Newspaper Article

Haney, D. Q.  (2005, March 5).  Finding eats at mystery of appetite. The New York Times, p. A1.

Newspaper Artice from the Free Internet

Smith, D. G.  (2001, May 8).  The mysterious case of the flying politician. New York Times. Retrieved from




















Scholarly Journal Articles from Online Subscription Services

Author, Last Name, First Name Initial.(Date). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Retrieved from database URL


Conran, G. (2001). Social psychology a century ago. American Psychologist, 55(4), 5-13. Retrieved from















"Free" Internet Sites

Articles from purchased Internet databases such as EBSCO, SIRS, Chicago Tribune, Electric Library, etc. should not be cited using this format. Use the magazine/newspaper/electronic book formats.

Author.  Last name, first name initial.  (Date of document).  Title of work.

       Retrieved month, day, year, from the URL


Mayo Clinic Staff. (2005, March 15).   Lead poisoning.  Retrieved March 14, 2005










Images, Photographs, and Pictures

Image from a Book

Photographer or Artist's Last name, first name initial. Title or Description of Image. (Date image was created). Title of the Book. By Author of the Book. City: Publisher, page or plate number.


Muybridge, E. [Photograph of a horse running]. (1887).  River of shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the technological wild

                 West. By Rebecca Solnit. New York, NY: Viking. 52.


Image from the Free Internet

Author's Last name, First name initial. (Date image was created).  Title or Description of Image. [Type of Work] Retrieved from URL of web site


Rousseau, H. (1896). The ship in the storm [Painting].  Retrieved from











Image from the Free Internet with no author

Japanese Geisha [Photograph]. (2006). Retrieved from











Computer Software

Author. (Year of Publication). Title  [computer software] . Place of Publication : Publisher.

Luddwig, T. (2002). PsychSims [computer software]. New York: Worth.








CD Recordings 

Songwriter Last name, First name initial.  (Copyright year).  Title of Song.  On Title of album. [Medium of recording].  Location:  Label. (Recording date if different from copyright date).

Shocked, M.  (1992).  Over the waterfall.  On Arkansas traveler

     [CD].  New York:  PolyGram Music.








Interviews, Email and Other Personal Communication

Because this material is not recoverable (i.e., it is not possible for someone else to see or hear it), it should not be listed in the list of References. It can, however, be cited parenthetically within the text.  It is extremely important that what is cited in this way be legitimate and have scholarly integrity.


Wilbur finds himself sometimes surprised by the claims of religiosity made by contemporaries.
(personal letter, March 28, 1977)

According to Connie May Fowler, the sources for her novel Sugar Cane were largely autobiographical
(personal phone conversation, July 22, 2003).












 Web Videos

 Author, Director or Creator. Date of video. Title. [Video File]. Retrieved from URL


Kamaron Institute. (2009, April 20). Cyber bullying prevention: A survival guide [Video file].

              Retrieved from