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MLA Citation Manual
Seventh Edition 

 

 Citation Help

 
 

 Credit should always be given for anyone else’s ideas or words used.

 


 

A bibliography is an alphabetized list of information sources.  It contains all of the works that you actually use in your paper or presentation, as well as a list of other books or sources you read but didn't directly use in your project.

A works cited list is the part of a formal research paper that lists, in bibliographic format, only the sources actually cited within the body of the report.

An annotated bibliography contains an evaluative description of the information source after each citation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Books

Author’s name. (Last name, first name) Title of the book. City: Publisher, Copyright Date. Print.

If mulitple cities of publication are listed in a book, include only the first city. You do not need to include the state or country name after the city.

Examples:

 

One Author
Meyer, Stephenie. Twilight. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2005. Print.
a
Two Authors
Johnson, Ted and Mark Donnelly. The Vietnam War. London: Greenwood, 1999. Print.
a
Three Authors
Slater, Fran E., Jason M. Tyler, and Claudia Liang. The History of England. London: Greenwood, 2005. Print.
More Than Three Authors - give the first author’s name only, followed by et al.
Roberts, Simon, et al. The Complete Java 2 Certification Study Guide. San Francisco: Sybex, 2003. Print.
 
An Anonymous Book (no author listed)
2008 People Weekly Almanac. New York: Cader, 1998. Print.
Book with an Editor

Jackson, Doreen, ed. The Cambridge Book of Mythology. London: Cambridge UP, 1997. Print.

For multiple editors, use the abbreviation “eds.”

 
Book with Author and Editor

Walker, Janice. A Season of Change. Ed. John Muller. New York: Beacon, 2002. Print.

A Translation

Beowulf. Trans. E. Talbot Donaldson. Ed. Nicholas Howe. New York: Norton, 2001. Print.

A Work in an Anthology

Palay, Grace. "A Warning." Telling and Remembering: A Century of American Jewish Poetry.Ed.

           Steven J. Rubin. Boston: Beacon, 1997. 26-31. Print.

Print Encyclopedia  (Use this format for general encyclopedias.)
a
Author. "Article Title." Book Title. Copyright Date. Print.
a
Smith, Shanice. "American Poetry." World Book.  2008.  Print.
a

A Multivolume Work - Print

If you use two or more volumes in the source, just cite the total number of volumes.

Editor.
Book Title. Edition. Total Number of Volumes. Place of Publication: Publisher,

          Copyright Date. Print.

Beason, Jon K., ed. The Dictionary of The Industrial Revolution. 6th ed. 6 vols. Boston: Boston University Press,

           2009. Print. Woo, Grace and Jane Hearst, Eds. Encyclopedia of Social Sciences. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge

            Press, 2010. Print.

 

If you use only one volume in the source, just cite the volume you used. Also, cite the article's title.

Author.
"Article Title." Book Title. Editor. Edition. The Number of Volume you used. Place

                of Publication: Publisher, Copyright Date. Print.

Pedraza, Silvia. “Assimilation and Acculturation.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the

United States. Ed. Suzanne Oboler and Deena J. González. Vol. 1. New York: Oxford, 2005.

Print.

 

 

Online Books From Subscription Databases
a

Author. "Article Title." Book Title. Copyright Date. Name of Database. Web.  Access Date.

a
Smith, Sally.  "Intravenous Drug Use".  Illegal Drugs: America's Anguish. 2004. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center.

            Web. 4 Feb. 2005.
a

"China's Muslim Challenge: Conflict in Xinjiang." History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide.   

              Vol. 3. 2009. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 3 Mar. 2009.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Magazine Articles

Includes Internet articles from SIRS, Electric Library, EBSCO, etc.

a
Magazine Article From a Subscription Database
a

Author.  "Article Title." Magazine Title magazine date: page nos. Title of database. Web.

               Access Date.

Note: if no page number, use n. pag.

Example:


Stransky, Tanner. "Inside the Casting of Dancing with the Stars." Entertainment Weekly

26 Mar. 2010: 40-43. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 29 June 2010.

 

Magazine Article From the Free Internet
a

Author. “Title of the article.” Title of web site. Version or edition (if available). Publisher or

               sponsor of site, Date of publication. Web. Date of access. <URL>.

Note:

if no publisher or sponsor, use n.p.

if no date, use n.d.

Examples:

Brown, Tina. "The Speaker is in The House." Newsweek. Newsweek, 16 May 2009. Web. 9 June 2009.

        < http://www.newsweek.com/id/197890>.

 

Bandyk, Matthew. "Best Small Businesses to Start." U.S. News & World Report.com. U.S. News & World Report,

           13 Nov. 2008. Web. 5 July 2009. <http://www.usnews.com/articles/business/best-small-

            businesses/2008/11/13/best-small-businesses-to-start.html>.

 
Print Magazine Article
Author.  "Article Title." Magazine Title  Magazine Date: page nos. Print.
Example:
Svoboda, Elizabeth. "Building Better Money." Popular Science Feb. 2008: 52 - 54. Print.

a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper Article From a Subscription Database

Author.  "Article Title." Newspaper Title  article date, edition (if available), section: page no. Title of

aaaaa database
.
Web. Access Date.

Note:

if no number add n. pag.

Examples:

Mullen, William. "Dinosaur Bones in Sahara Prove a Monster Find." USA Today 12 Nov. 2004, A3: 12-13. Newspaper

             Source. Web. 3 May 2000.

 

Higgins, Michelle. “Unrest in Kenya Throws a Wrench Into Safari Plans.” Chicago Tribune 13 Jan. 2008, Travel: 3.

             Proquest Newspapers. Web. 23 Jan. 2008.

Newspaper Article From the Free Internet

Author. “Title of the article.” Title of web site. Version or edition (if available). Publisher or

          sponsor of site, Date of publication. Web. Date of access. <URL>.

Note:

if no publisher or sponsor, use n.p.

if no date, use n.d.

Example:

Associated Press. "Jobless Claims Drop Again; Retail Sales Rose in May." USA Today. USA Today, 11 June 2009.

           Web. 1 July 2009.  <http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2009-06-11-jobless-claims-retail-sales_N.htm>.

Rozek, Dan. "Good Grades Worth $80,000." Chicago Sun-Times. Sun-Times News Group, 8 June 2009. Web. 15 June 

         2009.<http://www.suntimes.com/news/education/1611616,CST-NWS-roosevelt08.article>.

a
Print Newspaper Article
Author.  "Article Title." Newspaper Title  date of publication, edition (if available), section: page no. Print.
a
Examples:
Mihalopoulos, Dan. "Report Blasts Parking Deal." Chicago Tribune 3 June 2009, sec. 1: 1+. Print.

Browning, Lynnley. "First Client from U.S. is Arrested in UBS Case." New York Times 3 Apr. 2009, natl ed.: B3. Print.

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scholarly Journal Articles (i.e. First Search)

 

Author.  "Article Title." Magazine Title. Series number or name. Volume number. Issue

          number. (Date of publication year): page nos. Title of database. Web. Access Date.

Note:

if no number add n. pag.

Example:

Fischer, Karin. "One University's Strategy for Keeping International Projects Running Smoothly." Chronicle of Higher

             Education. 3 (2009): A26. ERIC.   Web. 6 June 2009.

 

Bang, Hee Jin. " Promising Homework Practices: Teachers' Perspectives On Making Homework Work for Newcomer Immigrant

            Students." High School Journal 95.2 (2011): 3-31. Professional Development Collection. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Free Internet Sites

Articles from purchased Internet databases such as

EBSCO, SIRS, Chicago Tribune, Electric Library, etc. should not be cited using this format.

Use the magazine/newspaper/electronic book formats.

"Free" Internet Cited Only on the Web:

Author. “Title of the work.” Title of web site. Version or edition (if available). Publisher or

               sponsor of site, publication date. Web. Date of access. <URL>.

Note:

if no publisher or sponsor listed, use n.p.

If no publication date listed, use n.d.

Examples:

Park, Madison. “Furry Pals Can Be Partners in Fitness.” CNN. Cable News Network, 8 June 2009. Web. 11 June 2009.

<http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/06/05/fat.cats.owners.exercise/index.html>.

“Guide to Quitting Smoking.” American Cancer Society. American Cancer Society, 21 May 2009. Web. 9 June 2009.

         < http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_10_13X_Guide_for_Quitting_Smoking.asp?from=fast>.

The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum. National Archives and Records Administration, n.d. Web. 10 June

           2009. <http://www.hoover.archives.gov>.

Brown, Tina. "The Speaker is in The House." The Chicago Tribune. The Tribune Company, 16 May 2009. Web. 9 June 2009.

        < http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/breaking/id/197890>.



" Free" Internet Cited with Print Publication Data.

Author.  "Article Title." Title of the Work. Edition. Number(s) of the Volume(s). City of publication: Publisher, year of

               publication. Title of the database or Web site. Web. Date of access. <URL>.


Examples:

Tibol, Raquel. Frida Kahlo: An Open Life. Illustrated. New Mexico: UNM Press, 1999. Google Book Search. Web. 2 June

         2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=HJaFg3S7AZQC>.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2007. Vol. 19. Atlanta: Department of Health

          and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009. Centers for Disease Control and

          Prevention. Web. 9 June 2009. <http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/ 

           resources/reports/2007report/default.htm>.


  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Encyclopedias & Reference Sources

 Online Encyclopedia or Reference Source
Author. "Article Title." Book Title. Copyright Date. Name of Database. Web.  Access Date.
a
Examples:
“Niger.” Culture Grams World Edition. 2007. Culture Grams. Web.  15 May 2007.
 

Rowland, Diane and Rachel Garfield. “Medicaid.” Encyclopedia of Public Health. Ed. Lester Breslow. 2002. Gale Virtual

            Reference Library. Web. 7 July 2008.

Leeming, David. “Aeneid.” The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. 2004. Oxford Reference Online. Web. 11 Apr.

               2010.

a

“China: 1946-1976 (Overview).” 2008. World History: The Modern Era. Web. 4 Apr. 2007.

            


Branam, Harold. "William Shakespeare." Great Lives from History: Renaissance & Early Modern Era, 1454-1600. 2008.

             Salem History. Web. 24 Sept. 2009.


Print Encyclopedia  (Use this format for general encyclopedias.)
a
Author. "Article Title." Book Title. Copyright Date. Print.
a
Smith, Shanice. "American Poetry." World Book.  2008.  Print.
a
 

A Multivolume Work - Print

If you use two or more volumes in the source, just cite the total number of volumes.

Editor.
Book Title. Edition. Total Number of Volumes. Place of Publication: Publisher,

               Copyright Date. Print.

Beason, Jon K., ed. The Dictionary of The Industrial Revolution. 6th ed. 6 vols. Boston: Boston University Press, 2009.

            Print.

Woo, Grace and Jane Hearst, eds. Encyclopedia of Social Sciences. 3 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge Press, 2010. Print.

 

If you use only one volume in the source, just cite the volume you used. Also, cite the article's title.

Author.
"Article Title." Book Title. Editor. Edition. The Number of Volume you used. Place of Publication: Publisher,
Copyright Date. Print.

Pedraza, Silvia. “Assimilation and Acculturation.” The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the

United States. Ed. Suzanne Oboler and Deena J. González. Vol. 1. New York: Oxford, 2005.

Print.

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Images/Photos/Pictures

 

Online Painting, Sculpture or Photograph:

 

Photographer or Artist's Name.  Title or Description of Image.  Date of Composition.

               Sponsor of site. Title of Web Site. Web. Download Date.  <URL>.

Note: if date of composition is unknown, write n.d.

Example:


Johnson, Williams H. Blind Singer. 1940. The Museum of Modern Art. The Collection. Web. 8 June 2009.

        <http://www.moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3AAD%3AE%

          3A22989&page_number=1&template_id=1&sort_order=1>.

McCarl, Robert. Angelo Basileo Retirement Dinner. 1994. Library of Congress, American Memory. Working in Paterson.

            Web. 6 June 2009. <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi- bin/query/D?afcwip:1:./temp/~ammem_18b0::>.

 a   
a

Photograph or Work of Art from a Book:

 

Photographer or Artist's Name.  Title or Description of Image.  Date of Composition. Institution or private owner. Title of Book.  Author or editor of book. City of publication: Publisher, year of publication. Page, figure, or plate number. Medium of reproduction.

Note:

if year is unknown, write n.d
if owner is unknown write Private collection

 

Example:

 

Kahlo, Frida. Me and My Parrots. 1941. Private collection. Frida Kahlo: The Painter and Her Work. Helga Prignitz-Poda.

        New York: Schirmer/Mosel, 2003. Plate 23. Print.

 

Personal Photograph:
Photographer. Description of Photograph. Photograph. Date of Composition.
Example:
Calder, Joseph. Saint Paul's Cathedral, London. Photograph.  2009.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

E-mail

Name of Writer. "Title of Message from Subject Line." Description of the message that includes the recipient. date of message. E-mail.

 

Examples:

Dewey, John. "Re: Card Catalog." Message to Jimmy Wales.10 June 2009. E-mail.

Kozol, Jonathan. " Message to the author." 21 Sept. 2009. E-mail.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Films or DVD programs

 

a
Title. Director. Distributor, year of release. Medium.
Example:
Finding Nemo. Dir. Andrew Stanton. Disney, 2003. DVD.


For films that are dubbed or have subtitles in English you may want to use the English title with the original title italicized in brackets

e.g. My Life in Pink [Ma vie en rose].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Television and Radio Programs 

 

a
"Title of segment." Title of Show or Series. Call letters and city of the local station.  Broadcast date. Medium (e.g. Radio, Television).
a
Example:
"An Interview with Elton John." Barbara Walters Special. ABC. WISN, Milwaukee. 21 Mar. 1998. Television.
a
Online Transcript of Television/Radio Show:
"Title of segment." Title of Show. Call letters and city of the local station. Broadcast date. Name of Subscription Service. Medium. (e.g. Radio, Television)  Download Date. 
a
Example:

"Pollution in the Desert." Sixty Minutes.  NBC. WILL, New York,  6 Mar. 2009.  eLibrary. Radio. 5 May

             2000. 

            

 a     a

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interviews 

Person being interviewed.  Personal Interview.  Date of Interview.

Personal Interview

Example:

O'Connell, Amanda. Personal Interview. 7 Jan. 2003.

Note: If interview is conducted over the telephone, use the label Telephone Interview

Jasper, Lance. Telephone Interview. 4 July 2009.

 

Interview from the Free Internet

Person being interviewed. Interview (include interviewer if known).  Title of Web site. Publisher or sponsor of site. Date of publication. Web. Date of access. <URL>.

Note:

if no publisher or sponsor listed, use n.p.

If no publication date listed, use n.d.

 

Example:

King, Stephen. Interview by Gilbert Cruz. "Q & A: Talking with Stephen King." Time. Time, 23 Nov. 2007. Web. 9 June

         2009. <http://www.time.com/time/arts/article9988783>.

 

Interview found in a Online Database such as SIRS Researcher: 

 

Example:

Person being interviewed. Interview (include interviewer if known. "Article title." Title of Original Source. Series number or name. Volume number. Issue number. Date of publication: page number(s). Title of database. Web. Date of access.

if page numbers are not available use n. pag.


Bhutto, Benazir. Interview by Nathan Gardels. "Bhutto: Musharraf Was Aware of A.Q. Khan's Proliferation Acts and Is

             Engaged in a Cover-Up." Global Viewpoint. 17 Feb. 2004: n. pag. SIRS Researcher. Web. 8 June 2009.

              

          

Interview from DVD

 

 

Person being interviewed. Interview, add name of interviewer if known. "Article title." Title of DVD. Director. Publisher, Date of publication. DVD

Example:

Lucas, George. Interview by Bill Moyers. The Mythology of Star Wars with George Lucas and Bill Moyers. Dir. Pamela

              Mason Wagner. Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2004. DVD.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dictionary Entry

 

"Entry." Title of Dictionary. ed. Year. Print.

"Destitute." The Oxford English Dictionary.  3rd ed. 2002. Print.

 

Example:

"Destitute." The Oxford English Dictionary.  3rd ed. 2002. Print.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Blog Entry

 

a

Lastname, Firstname, "Title of individual blog entry." [Weblog entry.] Name of Weblog. Sponsoring organization if any. Date poster. (URL) Date accessed.

a
Example:

Valenza, Joyce K. "Citing a Blog Entry in MLA Style." [Weblog entry.] Neverending Search. Springfield Township High

          School. 10 Jan. 2007. (http://joycevalenza.edublogs.org/permalink06). 31 Jan. 2007.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CD Recordings 

Artist. Title of CD.  Distributor, Year. CD.

Example:

Shocked, Michelle. Arkansas Traveler..  Polygram Records, 2002. CD.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maps

Map from a Book

"Map Title." Map. Book Title .  Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. Print.

Example:

"Europe, World War II." Map. Historical Maps of World War II.   New York:  Random House, 2005. Print.

Map from an Online Database

"Map Title."  Map.  Title of Original Source.  Database Name.  Name of Subcription Service. Web.

          Download Date. 

Example:

"The Growth of Russia."  Map.  Maps.com. eLibrary. Web. 6 Apr. 2005.

        

Map from the Free Internet

"Map Title."  Map.  Title of Web Site.  Copyright date.  Associated organization. Web. Download date.  < URL>.

Example:

"Timezones." Map. National Atlas.Gov. 2008. United States Department of the Interior. Web.  8 Aug. 2009.

      http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/timezones.html#one.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video from the Web

Title. Director or Creator.Year of Creation. Film. Title of the database or Web site. Web. Download date. <URL>.

Example:

Major Earthquake has Hit Christ Church, New Zealand. TV New Zealand. Web. 25 Feb. 2011.

             <
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BfcWraeZvcw&feature=topvideos>.

 

 

Class Notes

Lecturer Last name, First Name. Class Notes. Course. Location. Date of lecture.

Example:

Jones, Mr. Class Notes. American Studies. Deerfield High School, Deerfield IL. 26 Sept. 2011.

 

 

  

Survey

MLA does not offer specific advice on citing a survey that you have created yourself. However, a survey is essentially a type of interview , therefore we suggest that you mirror that format.

Last name, First name. "Name of survey." Survey. Date.

Example:

Abilock, Damon. "Hot Lunch Options." Survey. 6 June 2009.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
"Title of Handout". Handout. Title of Course. (Name of Instructor). Name of School. Date of handout.
 
Example:
 
"Exponents". Handout. Algebra I. (Mr. Jones). Deerfield High School. 26 Sept. 2011.