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  In-text Citations

 Print Source Guidelines

Ø     Author named in a signal phrase - give the page # at the end of the sentence within parenthesis.

        Nadine Strossen recently wrote "terrorists will find ways to circumvent immigration regulations" (72).

What is a Signal Phrase?

-According to Martha Bradley,

-As stated in her article, “Smoking Banned in Local Restaurants”, Haley states…

-John Anderson claims...

Ø     If the signal phrase does not name the author - give author's last name and page number within parenthesis.

        "Terrorists will find ways to circumvent immigration regulations" (Strossen 72).

 Ø     Author unknown – use abbreviated form of “article title.”

        "Terrorists will find ways to circumvent immigration regulations" ("USA Patriot Act").

Ø     Indirect source (source quoted in another source)

        According to ACLU president Nadine Strossen, "Terrorists will find ways to circumvent immigration regulations " (qtd. in USA Patriot Act).

Ø     Articles with the same title and no author-use article title and original source.

      (This is often the case with encyclopedia articles, especially biographies.)

      Protests leaders lobbied for benefits such as pensions from Congress (“George Washington”, Discovering Biography).

      George Washington was elected by the first official electoral college in 1789 (“George Washington”, World Book).


Electronic Source Guidelines

 Ø     MLA recommends treating electronic sources as unpaginated.  If the website numbers its paragraphs then, give the abbreviation “par.” or “pars.”  Most websites do not number their paragraphs.  So you will not number paragraphs often.

      "Terrorists will find ways to circumvent immigration regulations" (Strossen par. 8).

      "Electric power has been found to be cheaper than gas" (Johnson pars. 8-10).


Author available

Author’s name in a signal phrase

In his encyclopedia article, Hester notes that archeologists evaluate both artifacts and ecofacts during the excavation process (599).  


Author’s name in a signal phrase-page numbers not available


According to Johnson, from Human Rights Online, children's rights violations are increasing (pars. 7-9).

Author’s name not used in signal phrase

Whenever Lady Macbeth shows her “internal stress,” she mentions washing something (Mack 64).

From a source where the author’s name is given

Of Plymouth Plantation was not published until the nineteenth century (McGiffert).

          Author not available—use title or a short form of the title

Marie Antoinette lived in Versailles during the American Revolution ("Liberty’s Kids").